More than 20 joint enterprise agreements between newspapers have been terminated, often with one of the newspapers leaving the store or becoming a mere online source of information, according to an article in Detroit Crain Business`s 2018 on the possible fate of the Detroit JOA. The article says that it is estimated that five OJ newspapers still exist. Similar rules allowed most U.S. average cities to have two daily newspapers until recently. The number of joint enterprise agreements and the number of evening dailies have declined considerably in recent years due to the gradual consolidation of the press industry as a whole and the decline in readership and interest in evening newspapers, which many observers attribute to television and the internet, which seems to be reinforced by the presence of several 24-hour messages on cable television. So far, there have been 28 joint enterprise agreements. The Chattanooga Times and chattanooga News-Free Press were the first to be terminated on August 27, 1966.  In the Michigan Citizens for an Independent Press v. Thornburgh (1989), an equally divided Supreme Court, issued a brief statement confirming such an agreement, approved by then Attorney General Edwin Meese III (and defended by current Attorney General Richard L. Thornburgh) between the Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News. The agreement was unique in that it provided for newspapers to spend joint editions on Saturdays and Sundays, one written editorials on Saturdays and the other on Sundays. The second form of joint enterprise agreement concerns a corporate partnership.
One company is an operational partner for other companies and provides common contractual services. Secondary partners can transfer facilities, equipment, cash and other items to the company`s partner. Under this type of joint enterprise agreement, no joint venture will be created. After the adoption of the NPA, two JoAs from the newspaper were created in the 1970s, three in the 1980s and several in the 1990s. While the JOAs are designed to preserve editorial competition between two dailies in a single market, the question of whether they have been successful or not is controversial. The number of newspapers that came into force increased from 34 in 1997 to 15 in 1998. As has already been mentioned, several types of joint actions do not require exemptions from cartels and abuse of dominance, and some experts have questioned the value of granting specific waivers on cartels and abuse of dominance. In addition, other market forces appear to be at work against troubled newspapers.
These include the growth of television and the overall decline in the number of readers of many newspapers. Many newspapers were dissolved, which led to a single newspaper serving a certain geographic market. In some cases, specific legislation has been passed by Congress to provide exceptions for cartels and abuse of dominance for common enterprise agreements in certain sectors. In 1970, Congress passed the Newspaper Preservation Act, which granted a waiver of agreements and abuse of dominance to joint enterprise agreements between two competing dailies in the same geographic markets.