The Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) is an agreement between two or more countries that facilitates trade by removing barriers to trade between the countries concerned (Kahouli and Maktouf 2015; Zhou 2015; Bilas and Franc 2016; Hayakawa et al. 2016). Free trade agreements remove restrictions on trade in goods and open markets for services and investment between the parties (Zhang et al. 2007). Almost all countries now participate as partners in at least one ATR (Zhou 2015). On 29 November 2004, Prime Minister Koizumi and President Arroyo met bilaterally and confirmed that the two sides had reached agreements in principle on important elements of the agreement. small openings in the labour market for Filipino health workers are very limited (workers must learn Japanese, undergo equivalency tests, remain for only a limited period, etc.) and neglect the real potential for abuse of Filipino workers in Japan; fear that Japan could access and over-explore Philippine waters, ruining the livelihoods of small-scale fishermen; all the so-called benefits of increased exports of pineapples and bananas to Japan would indeed benefit companies such as Dole and Del Monte and their local trading partners who own and operate plantations in the Philippines – not to small Filipino or landless farmers; unconstitutional, to the extent that JPEPA allows Japanese companies to own land, manage schools and practice certain professions in the Philippines that the Philippine Constitution does not allow; the huge imbalances in the agreement, for example Japan.B excluded nearly 200 customs lines from the agreement, the Philippines only six; and the fact that JPEPA explicitly provides Japan with legal basis for landfilling toxic waste in the Philippines. Since 1990, intra-regional trade flows in East Asia have gradually increased as a result of free trade agreements (FAs). It is also the second wave of regionalism (see Urata 2004; Yoshimatsu 2005; Ali and Caldentey 2007; Liu 2007; Bui 2008; Park and Park 2011; Jalles 2012; Reyes et al. 2014; Suvannaphakdy and Toyoda 2014; Kahouli and Maktouf 2015). On 29 November 2004, at the ASEAN summit in Laos, the Governments of Japan and the Philippines reached a fundamental political agreement on bilateral free trade – the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement or “JPEPA”.